June 9, 2023

Acetaminophen, more commonly known by brand names such as Tylenol, is not a true NSAID, as it does not have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is commonly discussed alongside NSAIDs as it has similar antipyretic and analgesic properties. Although its mechanism of action is not well-understood, there is still plenty to discuss in terms of its properties and applications, so let’s get a closer look at this famous drug.

We just learned about aspirin, so let’s touch  on another very popular drug, acetaminophen.   acetaminophen was first produced in 1877 by harmon  northrop morse at johns hopkins university. it   wasn’t tested clinically, however, until 1893,  when it was compared against another leading   analgesic of the time, phenacetin,

By joseph von  mering. mering noted that phenacetin use could   lead to methemoglobinemia, a condition that limits  the transport of oxygen to cells in the body.   biochemists david lester and leon greenberg  showed that not only does the body metabolize   acetaminophen is just as effective as phenacetin,   not

Carcinogenic, whereas phenacetin is.   consequently acetaminophen became widely used, and  now, it is one of the most used drugs in the us,   acetaminophen, more commonly  known by the brand name tylenol,   of the u.s., is often classified with nsaids,   or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. although  it is prescribed

As an antipyretic and analgesic,   to no anti-inflammatory activity. acetaminophen   for painful stimuli, but unlike any nsaid,   cyclooxygenase enzymes that produce prostaglandins   because of this, acetaminophen is not a suitable   substitute for nsaids in chronic inflammatory  the mechanism by which acetaminophen

Produces  its effects are actually not well known. it has   been suggested that it can inhibit cyclooxygenase  enzymes more effectively in the brain and central   nervous system, leading to its antipyretic and  analgesic effects. these sites have a lower   which are produced at sites of inflammation   acetaminophen

Can inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes.   actually inhibit a third cyclooxygenase enzyme,   encodes this third cox enzyme, no studies have   the weak inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes   makes acetaminophen a good choice for pain and  fever relief with little of the blood thinning   nsaids. acetaminophen is therefore

Prescribed in   asthmatics, who may have bad reactions to aspirin.   it can at high doses cause liver toxicity,  acetaminophen can be processed by the liver  to be removed from the body by two pathways.   where a drug or its metabolite are chemically  coupled to an additional molecule to increase   its solubility and

Ability to be removed from the  body. within the levels of a safe dose, molecules   of sulfate or glucuronide are covalently bound  to acetaminophen in order for it to be excreted.  too much acetaminophen, however, will overload  or saturate this pathway, causing excess drug   to be shunted to a pathway where it is metabolized 

Via oxidation by the liver enzyme cytochrome-3a4,   cyp-3a4 creates a toxic product called napqi,   called glutathione in order to be excreted.   high levels of acetaminophen overloading this  pathway can deplete stores of glutathione,   leaving the reactive napqi product to covalently  bind to and disrupt other proteins in

The liver,   leading to potentially fatal liver dysfunction.  this risk is more significant in people who are   fasting or consuming alcohol. malnutrition can  lead to the depletion of glutathione stores,   itself from the toxic napqi metabolite.   as well as induce, or increase the amount of,   covered, let’s

Move on to another of the  best-known drugs in the world, ibuprofen.

Transcribed from video
Acetaminophen/Paracetamol (Tylenol) By Professor Dave Explains