March 22, 2023

Albuterol is the generic name of the drug some brand names are provental hfa aeromir and pro-air resaclick it is classified as an androgenic bronchodilator and belongs in category c when looking at the drug pregnancy category a medication gets a category c classification if there is insufficient data on its use during pregnancy albuterol works by relaxing and

Opening air passages also known as bronchodilation making it easier to breathe it does this by stimulating beta-2 adrogenic receptors in the bronchioles and bronchi smooth muscles albuterol is used to treat or prevent bronchospasm additionally it helps prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm and it can be used for chronic pulmonary disorders when looking at

The liquid solution form of albuterol we see that the dosage is 2.5 milligrams and should be taken three to four times without exceeding four doses when utilizing the powder aerosol version two inhalation should be taken four to six hours to prevent exercise-induced bronchospasms 2 inhalation should be taken five minutes before exercise a max of 12 puffs should

Be taken in 24 hours when using tablets and syrup formulations two to four milligrams should be taken every six to eight hours a max of 32 milligrams should be taken per day when using extended release tablets four to eight milligrams should be taken every 12 hours a max of 32 milligrams should be taken per day the duration of the treatment depends on every

Individual case and additionally root of administration severity and exacerbation play a role in duration iv administration is five milligrams in 5 ml foreign looking at the pharmacodynamic of albuterol it acts as beta-2 adrogenic receptors in the smooth muscle of bronchi and bronchioles to relax the bronchial smooth muscle the receptors and stimulate the enzyme

Adenocyclase to increase production of cyclic amp which then will lead to bronchodilation another thing to note is that it inhibits the release of immediate hypersensitivity mediators for example the mast cells for pharmacokinetic the meter dose inhaler has the onset of action of 5 to 15 minutes and it reaches the peak of its activity between one to one and a

Half hours the duration of the drug usually lasts around three to six hours and albuterol during this time goes through extensive metabolism in the liver moving on to pharmacogenetics a single nucleotide polymorphism gene has reduced coupling to adenocyclase which leads to a shorter duration of receptor activation the allele has been associated with enhanced down

Regulation of beta-2 adrogenic receptors in transformed cells lines making someone less sensitive to albuterol when looking at the psychological response we see that albuterol can cause depression anxiety insomnia and agitation moving on to developmental responses we see that in the older population there is a greater risk of excessive cardiac and central nervous

System stimulation but regardless of age it is taken to treat the same symptoms the physiological process of albuterol is a beta-2 adrogenic receptors are stimulated in the bronchioles and bronchi smooth muscles making breathing easier additionally albuterol inhibits the release of hypersensitivity mediators socioeconomically albuterol is an in is an expensive

Drug income level and spending of household income on out-of-pocket spending contribute to a decrease in usage and affordability individual spiritual beliefs about the necessity of albuterol and the level of concern differ among population groups patients may begin with natural remedies due to spiritual beliefs before progressing to prescribed medication cultural

Health beliefs about the cause of illness symptoms treatment and consequences of treatment affect adherence black and hispanic concerns about the medication tend to outweigh the belief in the necessity of it resulting in lower adherence prevalence of most comorbidities increases with age requiring caution in the dose having cold morbidities affects the ability to

Diagnose and therefore treatment in older adults can be delayed leading to more severe clinical presentations older adults have a higher risk of excessive cardiac and central nervous system stimulation however there are no differences with genders unless nursing impaired access to health care due to cost decreases access to medication among minorities currently no

Evidence to suggest that physiologically albuterol responses differs among population groups however therapeutic response to albuterol among black and puerto ricans individuals is the lowest due to higher odds of poor adherence typically labs are not used to monitor the effectiveness of albuterol however there are some blood pressure drugs such as diuretics that

Can cause heart rhythm changes and potassium levels to drop the doctor will monitor the patient’s lung function to see if the medication is effective this may be done using spirometry that this test will monitor lung conditions to measure how much air the patient can breathe out in one forced breath licensed medical doctors are able to prescribe albuterol online

After a medical evaluation during the appointment the doctor will do a medical evaluation including medical history and review of current symptoms the role of the nurse includes the five patients rights which are the right patient right dose right route right medication and right time this helps ensure that we reduce medication errors and don’t harm our patients

Role of the pharmacist while the nurse provides education on administration and dosing the pharmacist can assist in demonstrating how to properly use an inhaler a spacer and how to operate and load the nebulizer drug mechanism and adverse effects albuterol works by acting on beta-2 adrogenic receptors to relax a bronchial smooth muscle the primary adverse effects

Of albuterol are tremors and nervousness typically seen in the pediatric population but can happen at any age other adverse effects include insomnia nausea less common adverse reactions may include fever headache and cough a couple of nclex questions question number one a patient received a nebulizer of albuterol what is the side effect of this medication is it a

High blood pressure b bradycardia c tachycardia or d hypovolemia question number two what product should the patient avoid if they are taking albuterol a dairy b celery c peanuts d caffeine number three if a patient is given four milligrams of albuterol every eight hours and they are given their dosage at seven o’clock when is the next time they can be given their

Dose a 1500 b 1600 c 1400 or d1530 number one the answer is tachycardia two is d caffeine and three is a 1500. a 16 year old patient presented to the hospital with complaints of shortness of breath usage of accessory muscles and persistent cough vital signs show that respiratory rate is 24 breaths per minute and the pulse ox shows oxygen saturation is 89 percent

Patient appears to be short of breath and coughing respiratory rate is 24 breaths per minute oxygen saturation is 89 on room air and patient is using accessory muscles to breathe audible wheezing is heard upon auscultation patients says she’s not feeling well she feels like she’s having a hard time getting a breath out the diagnosis is an infective breathing patterns

Related to asthma exacerbation as evidenced by coughing wheezing in the right upper and lower and left upper and lower lobes oxygen saturation 89 on room air respiratory rate 24 a minute and use of accessory muscles the plan airway management and increased oxygen saturation by administer albuterol inhaler interventions administer albuterol sulfate hfa and struck two

Puffs every four to six hours prn for coughing wheezing and chest tightness evaluation the patient’s oxygen saturation returned to 99 patient’s respiratory rate decreased to 18 breaths per minute administration of albuterol via nebulizer resulted in improved breathing will reassess the respiratory system in 15 minutes come in hi my name is hayden i’m going to be

Your nurse today how are you doing i’m good how are you i’m doing well um are you aware of what medication you’re taking home um yes i believe the doctor said albuterol okay great i’m going to explain to you a little bit about what it’s used for um it will help relax and open your air passageways the inhaler will essentially make it easier for you to breathe and

You won’t struggle to breathe out as much or wheeze um there are some side effects with the medication nervousness shakiness headache and muscle aches if for some reason you’re having itching swelling or hives you’re probably having an allergic reaction you need to call your provider as soon as possible um there are some symptoms of overuse chest pain increased

Heartbeat headache tremors dizziness and again nervousness um this drug is what’s called a prn drug so you’re going to use it as needed two puffs every four to six hours for cough chest tightness or wheezing the best place to store this drug is at room temperature away from direct sunlight and you’ll see on the back of your albuterol inhaler very important there’s

An expiration date so sometimes with inhalers you’re not necessarily using them all the time a couple months can go in between which is totally normal just make sure before you start using it but your date is not expired if you do have an expired date throw it away and then call your provider to get a new prescription um do you have any questions about anything

That i just said um no my only question is how would i use it great that’s forever i was gonna i was gonna show you that right now so the best thing for you to do you’re going to remove the lid right here and you’ll put your mouth around this area right here and once you’re ready you’re going to breathe out you’re going to press this button breathe in at the same

Time you’re going to inhale hold for 10 seconds then release and if you need to use two puffs wait a minute before you um before you do it again and then wait about four to six hours and if you’re feeling kind of icky chest is tight having a hard time breathing make sure your past the four to six hours range and then you can take it again okay any questions no that

Makes a lot of sense perfect thank you in this brochure we would have given this to the patient after we did our patient teaching this just goes a little bit into depth more about what we discussed and if for some reason they forgot what was talked about in our teaching they could refer back to this on the brochure we discuss what is albuterol albuterol is used

To prevent and treat symptoms like difficulty breathing wheezing shortness of breath coughing and chest tightness caused by a lung disease called asthma albuterol is a bronchodilator medication that will relax in open air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier some possible side effects are nervousness or shakiness headache throat or nasal irritation and

Muscle aches non-common side effects including a rapid heart rate or feelings of fluttering or a pounding heart we would advise our patients to call the doctor if any of these symptoms occur like fast pounding or irregular heartbeat chest pain fever blisters rash or hives itching swelling anywhere increased difficulty breathing difficulty swallowing and hoarseness

If there’s any indication that you may be having an allergic reaction to the medication stop taking it on the back half it goes into a little bit more depth about the drug itself how our patients should be taking the albuterol it should be taken around the same time every day tablet and syrup form can take three to four times a day powder and aerosol inhalers

Take two inhalations every four to six hours maximum 12 puffs per every 24 hours the medication needs to be taken as prescribed do not take more or less of it and certainly do not take more keep taking even if you feel well do not stop taking it without talking to your doctor when using an inhaler make sure after using your dose to rinse your mouth with water

And spit it out some further drug information tell your doctor if you’re taking any of these medications listed a drug diet avoid food beverages that have high caffeine like coffee tea chocolate energy drinks and sodas some drug disease would be coronary artery disease heart failure failure hyperthyroidism diabetes liver disease drug supplements it is important

To tell your doctor if you are taking any current dietary supplements things that you need to tell your doctor any known allergies towards albuterol or any medication if you are taking any other medication currently including any nutritional supplements and herbal products any history of diseases or disorders you’ve had in the past or currently have if you are

Pregnant or planning to become or are currently breastfeeding keep the medication in its current container and out of reach of children make sure to store it at a room temperature away from the heat and moisture dispose of medication when used and if it is expired make sure to dispose of it as well what happens if i miss a dose take the missed dose whenever you

Remember it if it is almost time for your next dose then skip the one you miss and continue with your regular dosing schedule never double dose to make it for the one you missed

Transcribed from video
Albuterol Case Study By Arlene Paramo