June 1, 2023

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In this lecture we’ll briefly discuss the drug allopurinol how it works what it’s used for the dose and side effects and contraindications and precautions allopurinol is a uric acid reducer for gout it inhibits xanthine oxidase which is the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine xanthine is a precursor for uric acid production thus uric acid production

Is decreased the main indication of this drug is prevention of gout arthritis and uric acid nephropathy note that it is not effective for treatment of an acute gout attack it is also used as prophylaxis for chemotherapy induced hyperuricemia it is available as 100 and 300 milligrams tablets and also available as injection the usual dose for prophylaxis of gout

Attacks is 100 milligrams once daily to three times daily up to 800 milligrams per day note that single dose shouldn’t exceed 300 milligrams and dose should be weakly titrated to the recommended dosage the usual dose for mild gout for adults is 200 to 300 milligrams per day and for moderately severe gout is 400 to 600 milligrams per day and 700 to 800 milligrams

Per day in severe conditions the onset of action of this drug is from 48 to 72 hours for decline of ceramic acid level and one to three weeks to achieve proper level a common adverse reactions of this drug is skin rash in this case the drug should be discontinued serious adverse reactions that may happen are a granulocytosis aplastic anemia thrombocytopenia

Hepatic injury stevens-johnson syndrome vasculitis toxic epidermal necrolysis neuritis cataracts and renal toxicity there are also some clinically important drug interactions with this drug drugs that increase effects or toxicity of low purinol thiazide diurectics ace inhibitors and vitamin c allopurinol increases effects or toxicity of these drugs ampicillin

Amoxicillin oral anticoagulants 6 mercaptopurine cyclophosphamide theophylline chloropropamide and alcohol because the incidence of acute attacks of gout may increase during the first few months of treatment with alopurinol colchicine which is a uricosauric agent or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug should be added to the regimen as a prophylactic measure

This drug may cause renal failure through acute tubular necrosis so in case of renal function impairment dose should be reduced use drug in children only to treat hyperuricemia associated with chemotherapy this drug is category c and it is excreted in breast milk so caution is advised when used in nursing mothers so finally some advice to patients taking a

Lapuranol take with meals or immediately after eating drink large quantities of water about 10 to 12 glasses per day limit foods with high purine content such as liver or other organ meats salmon and sardines don’t take large amounts of vitamin c and don’t take iron salts while taking a lapurinol limit intake of caffeine and alcohol avoid driving and other

Activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known avoid alcohol and other cns depressants such as opiate analgesics and sedatives such as valium when taking this drug and limit exposure to uv light as this may increase the risk of cataracts that’s all for this video subscribe to get more drug information

Transcribed from video
Allopurinol 100mg (Zyloprim)- What is Allopurinol? Uses, Dosage, Side Effects and Contraindications By Medical Videos [ ANIMATED ]