February 1, 2023

NCLEX Review: Amoxicillin – Mechanism of Action, Uses, Side effects, Contraindications, Precautions, and Nursing considerations

Hi everyone this is ryan from rpnt.ca and today we’re going to be talking about the drug amoxicillin also known as amoxyl amoxicillin belongs to the penicillin class of antibiotics antibiotics being drugs that inhibit the growth of or destroy bacteria bacteria are single-celled or unicellular organisms that can cause disease and often look something like this

As you can see bacteria have cell walls and cell membranes this makes them different from human cells which only have cell membranes and lack the cell walls so the way that penicillin works is by inhibiting cell wall synthesis in susceptible bacteria basically preventing the bacteria from growing their cell walls and without a cell wall bacterial cells become

Very vulnerable and quickly die this way penicillins do not affect human cells like blood cells muscle cells and other types of human cells some bacteria are not susceptible to antibiotics like penicillin or you can say that they are resistant to penicillin but we’ll talk more about that resistance in a little bit amoxicillin is a broad spectrum antibiotic

Which means that it can act on a wide variety of bacteria broad-spectrum antibiotics like amoxicillin are often used as initial treatment for suspected infection while a culture insensitivity test is still being processed on its own amoxicillin can be used to treat various bacterial infections of the ear nose throat gi tract skin and lower respiratory tract

But like i mentioned earlier some bacteria are resistant to penicillin on its own because they can produce an enzyme called penicillinase which inactivates penicillins such as amoxicillin to counter this amoxicillin is often administered as a combination drug with clavulinic acid clavulinic acid is a chemical that blocks penicillinase and allows amoxicillin

Use in penicillinase producing bacteria together amoxicillin and clavulinic acid are also known as augmentin or clavulin examples of genera or types of bacteria that amoxicillin can treat include streptococcus staphylococcus neceria and more amoxicillin in combination with clarithromycin another antibiotic and omeprazole a proton pump inhibitor can also be

Used to treat the bacteria helicobacter pylori or h pylori some of the common side effects of amoxicillin include diarrhea nausea neurotoxicity superinfection and more super infections are infections occurring after or on top of another infection and are thought to be caused by damage to host flora which normally prevent the growth of pathogenic organisms

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea which is usually three or more loose watery stools per day is common when starting penicillin antibiotics and should improve once the antibiotic is completed about one to ten percent of people report allergic reactions to penicillin most commonly skin rashes and anaphylactic reactions occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.05 percent of

Clients other important side effects include a granulocytosis which is a severely lowered white blood cell count that can be life-threatening seizures erythema and more do not use amoxicillin in clients with a penicillin allergy use cautiously in clients with low creatinine clearance or liver disease as amoxicillin dose may need to be decreased to accommodate

For poor drug elimination this also applies for elderly clients also use cautiously in clients with phenylketonuria because oral suspension and chewable tablets may contain aspartame always remember to assess and monitor for side effects of amoxicillin teach clients to complete the full course of therapy usually 10 to 14 days even if symptoms improve due to the

Common side effect of diarrhea remember to increase fluid intake while taking amoxicillin to prevent dehydration epinephrine alongside antihistamines and corticosteroids are often administered for treatment of anaphylaxis lastly watch for drug-to-drug interactions with amoxicillin some of which include warfarin probenecid antacids and more and that’s about it

For the basics of amoxicillin if you have any questions please let me know in the comments or visit rpnt.ca for more help

Transcribed from video
Amoxicillin (Amoxil) Nursing Drug Card (Simplified) – Pharmacology By Nurse Ryan