January 26, 2023

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Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder narcolepsy and obesity amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as to end ante emma’s laveau amphetamine and dextroamphetamine amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical the racemic freebase which is equal parts of the two

Enantiomers laveau amphetamine and dextroamphetamine in their pure amine forms however the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the and aunty emma’s or to either of them alone historically it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression and feta mean is also used as a performance and cognitive enhancer and recreationally as

An aphrodisiac and euphoria it is a prescription drug in many countries and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use the first pharmaceutical amphetamine was benzedrine a brand of inhalers used to treat a variety of conditions currently pharmaceutical

Amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine a dural dextroamphetamine or the inactive pro drug liz dex amphetamine amphetamine through activation of a trace amine receptor increases biogenic amina and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain with its most pronounced effect targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine at

Therapeutic doses this causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria change in libido increased wakefulness and improved cognitive control it induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time fatigue resistance and increased muscle strength much larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown drug addiction

Is a serious risk with large recreation doses but rarely arises from medical use very high doses can result in psychosis which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine

Class it is also the parent compound of its own structural class the substituted amphetamines which includes prominent substances such as bupropion kathak 1 mdma and methamphetamine as a member of the feenie thiamine class amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators specifically phenethylamine and an methyl phenyl

Amine both of which are produced within the human body phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine while an methyl phenyl amine is a constitutional isomer that differs only in the placement of the methyl group uses medical amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder narcolepsy and obesity and is sometimes prescribed off-label for

Its past medical indications such as depression long-term amphetamine exposure in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage but in humans with adhd pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth reviews of magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that long-term treatment with

Amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with adhd and improves function in several parts of the brain such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term amphetamine use for adhd controlled trials spanning two years have

Demonstrated treatment effectiveness and safety one review highlighted a nine-month randomized control trial in children with adhd that found an average increase of 4.5 iq points continued increases in attention and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity current models of adhd suggests that it is associated with functional impairments in some

Of the brain’s neurotransmitter systems these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocortical in back projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the locus karolius and prefrontal cortex psychostimulants like methylphenidate an amphetamine are effective in treating adhd because they increase neurotransmitter activity

In these systems approximately 80% of those who use these stimulants see improvements in adhd symptoms children with adhd who use stimulant medications generally have better relationships with peers and family members perform better in school less distractible and impulsive and have longer attention spans the cochrane collaboration z’ review on the treatment of

Adult adhd with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that while these drugs improve short-term symptoms they have higher discontinuation rates than non stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects a cochrane collaboration review on the treatment of adhd in children with tic disorders such as tourette’s syndrome indicated that stimulants in general do not

Make tics worse but high doses of dextroamphetamine could exacerbate ik sense um individuals enhancing performance in 2015 a systematic review and a meta-analysis of high-quality clinical trials found that when used at low doses amphetamine produces modest unambiguous improvements in cognition including working memory episodic memory and inhibitory control in

Normal healthy adults the cognition enhancing effects of amphetamine are known to occur through its indirect activation of both dopamine receptor d1 and adreno scepter a2 in the prefrontal cortex therapeutic doses of amphetamine also enhanced cortical network efficiency an effect which mediates improvements in working memory in all individuals amphetamine and

Other adhd stimulants also improve tasks alien see an increase arousal in turn promoting goal directed behavior stimulants such as amphetamine can improve performance on difficult and boring tasks and are used by some students as a study and test taking aid based upon studies of self-reported elicit stimulant use 5 to 35 percent of college students use diverted

Adhd stimulants which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs however high amphetamine doses that are above the therapeutic range can interfere with working memory and other aspects of cognitive control amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and performance enhancing effects such as increased stamina

And alertness however its uses prohibited at sporting events regulated by collegiate national and international anti-doping agencies in healthy people at oral therapeutic doses amphetamine has been shown to increase physical strength acceleration stamina and endurance while reducing reaction time amphetamine improves stamina endurance and reaction time primarily

Through reuptake inhibition and deflection of dopamine in the central nervous system at therapeutic doses the adverse effects of amphetamine do not impede athletic performance however at much higher doses amphetamine can induce effects that severely impair performance such as rapid muscle breakdown and elevated body temperature contraindications according to the

International program on chemical safety and united states food and drug administration amphetamine is contraindicated in people with a history of drug abuse heart disease severe agitation or severe anxiety it is also contraindicated in people currently experiencing arteriosclerosis glaucoma hyperthyroidism or or moderate to severe hypertension people who have

Experienced allergic reactions to other stimulants in the past or who are taking mono a mean oxidase inhibitors are advised not to take amphetamine although safe concurrent use of amphetamine and mono a mean oxidase inhibitors has been documented these agencies also state that anyone with anorexia nervosa bipolar disorder depression hypertension liver or kidney

Problems mania psychosis raynaud’s phenomenon seizures thyroid problems ticks or tourette syndrome should monitor their symptoms while taking amphetamine evidence from human studies indicates that therapeutic amphetamine use does not cause developmental abnormalities in the fetus or newborns but amphetamine abuse does pose risks to the fetus amphetamine has also been

Shown to pass into breast milk so the ipc s and us fda advise mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using it due to the potential for reversible growth impairments the us fda advises monitoring the height and weight of children and adolescents prescribed an amphetamine pharmaceutical side effects the side effects of amphetamine are varied and the amount of amphetamine

Used is the primary factor in determining the likelihood and severity of side effects amphetamine products such as adderall dexedrine and their generic equivalents are currently approved by the us fda for long-term therapeutic use recreational use of amphetamine generally involves much larger doses which have a greater risk of serious side effects than dosages used

For therapeutic reasons physical at normals therapeutic doses the physical side-effects of amphetamine vary widely by agent from person to person cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasa boggle response raynaud’s phenomenon and tachycardia sexual side-effects in males may include a reptile dysfunction frequent erections or

Prolonged erections abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain loss of appetite nausea and weight loss other potential side effects include acne or had vision dry mouth excessive grinding of the teeth nosebleed profuse sweating rhinitis medicament osa reduced seizure threshold and ticks dangerous physical side effects a rare at typical pharmaceutical doses

Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centers producing faster and deeper breaths in a normal person at therapeutic doses this effect is usually not noticeable but when respiration is already compromised it may be evident this effect can be useful in treating bedwetting and loss of bladder control the effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract

Are unpredictable if intestinal activity is high amphetamine may reduce gastrointestinal motility however amphetamine may increase motility when the smooth muscle of the tract is relaxed amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effects and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids u.s. fda commissioned studies from 2011 indicate that in children young adults

And adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events and the medical use of amphetamine or other adhd stimulants psychological common psychological effects of therapeutic doses can include increased alertness at prehension concentration decreased sense of fatigue mood swings increased initiative insomnia or wakefulness self-confidence

And sociability less common side effects include xiety change in libido grandiosity irritability repetitive or obsessive behaviors and restlessness these effects depend on the user’s personality and current mental state amphetamine psychosis can occur in heavy users although very rare this psychosis can also occur at therapeutic doses during long-term therapy

According to the us fda there is no systematic evidence that stimulants produce aggressive behavior or hostility amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine

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Amphetamine By WikiAudio