November 29, 2022

Bupropion is an antidepressant and a smoking cessation aid. The drug has been tested in many other conditions, including ADHD, obesity, and seasonal affective disorder.

Who propia on is an antidepressant that’s commonly used for both depression and smoking cessation it’s also been used for adhd obesity and seasonal affective disorder among other things the drug has a complex pharmacology that’s still not fully understood as always there will be more information in links to references on the drug classroom comm which you can find

Using the link below among the potential positive effects are stimulation mood lifts depression reduction and increased focus the negative effects can include tachycardia anxiety paranoia seizures dry mouth nausea and insomnia it’s primarily used medically for depression in smoking cessation and it is effective in both cases for some people most depression studies

Find it outperforms placebo with a similar response rate to ssris snris and tcas it can be superior to other antidepressants because it has a lower incidence of sexual dysfunction weight gain and drowsiness those who have fatigue as a key part of their symptoms may also benefit more from group opium it can take up to four weeks for the maximal effect to appear

And treatment usually continues for months if not longer along with being able to reduce core measures of depression it can often lead to positive changes on ratings of energy pleasure and interest group opion is sometimes used to treat ssri induced sexual dysfunction or otherwise alter ssri therapy the research suggests there is some reversal of sexual dysfunction

Meaning an increase in measures like sexual desire combining it with other antidepressants may also improve the core treatment outcomes the risk of seizure in serotonin syndrome is higher when adding it to ssri or snri treatment it also inhibits sent to d6 which is a common metabolic pathway for other antidepressants this could increase the active levels of those

Antidepressants thereby altering the treatment efficacy or increasing the risk of some negative effects outside of its use for depression group opion is commonly prescribed for smoking cessation it appears to raise the chance that a tobacco user will successfully quit the efficacy level is similar to that of nicotine replacement therapy it’s generally less effective

Than varenicline a lot of users find it reduces the withdrawal symptoms of nicotine and also reduces craving when they attempt to remain abstinent those who dislike the idea of nicotine replacement therapy or have previously failed with it might benefit from the drug treatment is typically scheduled so that a user attempts to quit nicotine during the second week of

Therapy boo pro p on is taken for seven to twelve weeks and even an additional six months or more it’s also sometimes used for seasonal affective disorder adhd and addiction in all of those cases the drug might provide some benefit especially in adhd more research should be done on those other uses some of the main negatives in medical settings are dry mouth nausea

Insomnia agitation and dizziness one of the reasons people stopped treatment is that it can produce a jittery over stimulated or just generally uncomfortable feeling the most common severe medical concern is seizures which our dose dependent patients should not exceed the maximum daily dose and they should begin with a sub maximum dose when it comes to recreational

Effects it’s rarely enjoyable relative to other drugs and it can be dangerous it does seem capable of providing a light form of stimulation and mood lifts when a large oral dose is used or it’s administered intranasally people who’ve been prescribed the drug may end up using it recreationally often with minimal effects or a negative response this use of the drug

Has also shown up in prisons due to its accessibility many of the cases i found where was being used chronically involved people who were previously addicted to another drug it’s rarely said to be anything better than a weak stimulant and the doses many people use can truly lead to seizures while you can find cases where people like the effects others find it

Just leads to an uncomfortable state featuring tachycardia anxiety and tremor the substance usually works in under 60 minutes the length of the peak effects varies by which version is being used it’s taken one to three times per day based on the patient’s response and whether they’re using the instant sustained or extended release form boop ro pian is an amino

Ketone that structurally distinct from ssris in tcas some of its structure is shared with other finet amines and m pepra mon the mechanism of action is not fully understood though there seem to be two core activities first it functions as a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor it may also affect the release of both second it’s a nicotinic acetylcholine

Antagonist affecting a 3 b to a 4b 2 & a 7 it’s most potent at a3 b2 in least potent a7 this kind of action can lead to antagonism of nicotine evoked dopamine activity some of the receptors being antagonized are connected to both dopamine and norepinephrine activity the pharmacology is complicated by the fact that pre propionic stents ibly metabolizes two other

Active drugs including hydroxy group opion s hydroxy group opion is more potent than the r isomer it has similar dopamine and norepinephrine effects to broop opium and is four times more potent as an a4 b2 nicotinic acetylcholine antagonist concentrations of both isomers end up higher in the csf than that of bupropion so whatever those substances are doing is

Important s hydroxy group opion appears to alleviate nicotine withdrawal in mice with a greater potency than burpo pian so it may play a role in that clinical effect some studies have indicated a correlation between metabolite levels and antidepressant action though this association has not been confirmed the drug is sold in three forms instant release sustained

Release and extended release dosing is based on your response in which form is used the maximum daily dose is 400 milligrams for sr and 450 milligrams for ir and xr dosing usually begins fairly low such as 100 to 200 milligrams daily and is increased over a period of weeks it’s difficult to give any sort of dosing information for recreational use any reasonably

Safe dose doesn’t provide much in the way of recreational effects if used for that purpose the same maximum dose an extended way of administering the drug should be observed for example it’s not wise to take 400 milligrams ir at once norma and mehta synthesized the drug in 1969 with the goal of finding a good antidepressant testing began in the 1970s and the

Effects were reported to be different from em fetta mean in 1977 approval from the fda was provided in 1985 but it was quickly withdrawn in 1986 the withdrawal was due to concerns about seizure potential further testing found it could be prescribed safely if more care was taken so it reinterred the us market in 1989 dr. linda ferry noticed that depressed patients

On the drug would sometimes spontaneously reduce or quit tobacco when clinical trials in non-depressed people occurred efficacy for that purpose was still seen in 1997 it entered the market as a smoking cessation treatment this was the first pharmacological treatment other than nicotine replacement approved in the us the 1990s is when safety concerns and concerns

About its recreational use potential clearly increased a bit of attention was given to its use in smoking cessation as well as its use in adhd in the early 2000s some use among children for adhd was beginning to occur more reports of recreational use appeared in the 2000s often with it being used intranasally and occasionally intravenously the xl formulation was

Approved in 2003 allowing more patients to use it once a day between the mid 2000s and 2010’s there seemed to be a rise in recreational use though it was still pretty uncommon most cases involved people who previously had a substance use disorder some of the iv use was associated with tissue damage it’s unscheduled in the united states though it’s only available

With the prescription the drug tends to be unscheduled elsewhere and might be prescription only the negative effects are mild at common doses but it doesn’t take much for an overdose to be problematic even 150 to 450 milligrams may lower the seizure threshold which could be an issue in susceptible individuals seizures become more common over 600 milligrams and over

A thousand milligrams is exceedingly risky the onset of seizures is usually under six hours though they occasionally occur over 12 hours with the extended release form users who experience an overdose with seizure activity appear more likely to also have tremor agitation and hallucinations an overdose can lead to agitation stimulation tachycardia nausea vomiting

Seizures hallucinations and tremor tachycardia is normally the only cardiac symptom psychosis and hallucinations are occasionally reported even in medical settings mainly when 400 milligrams or more is used some of the risky combinations include stimulants mao is in trim at all if you have any questions feel free to leave them in the comments section in order for the

Drug classroom to provide more education support is necessary and the best way to support is through patreon at patreon.com slash the drug classroom you can also contribute through paypal or bitcoin you can reach me on twitter at sethi fitzgerald and via email at seth at the drug classroom comm more information and links to references can be found on the tdc website using the link below

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Bupropion: What You Need To Know By The Drug Classroom