March 28, 2023

Hi this is angela renzoli and this is my oral presentation of the pharmacology 2 project on a specific drug so in this video i’m going to be talking about the drug furosemide and basically frozen wide works in the kidneys as a loop diuretic which i will explain what that means in a little bit to remove a lot of fluid in the body so let’s go straight into it

So a loop diuretic is a powerful diuretic which works in the kidneys to help remove some of these fluids so it’s basically used to stimulate the kidneys to remove sodium and water from the body and they do that by working in the loop of henle which is inside of the kidneys in the nephron of the kidneys which is why it’s called a loop diuretic because it works

Through the loop of henle um so fluorescent wide isn’t actually the only loop diuretic there’s another one called pumitinide um and the indications of fluorescemide is to reduce the amount of water in the body which is very useful for those to do who have which is very useful for those who have congestive cardiac failure or pulmonary edema or peripheral edema

Renal failure or even hypertension the main indications are edema and resistant hypertension so let’s take a little closer look at fluoresimide the chemical formula is c11 or excuse me c12h11 cin205s some of the brand names where you’ll see fluorescemide is the most popular one i found was the six then there’s diaqua two little aqua um and again the class

Is a loop diuretic um how that differs from a regular diuretic is that it’s just a little bit more powerful um yes so let’s go through the mechanism of action firstly um it’s important to know how loop diuretics work so we need to have a basic understanding of some of the functions of the kidney in order to do that so to briefly go through the kidney it’s

Basically made up of a million of these tiny tubes that are called nephrons and the nephrons are what’s responsible for filtering and balancing fluid and electrolytes between the blood and the urine so now the nephron consists of fine five main components and the loop of henle being one of them um the only one that we need to focus on here for this um talk

And how it works is small water molecules are filtered from the blood into what’s called a filtrate in the glomerus just a part of the kidney and then varying amounts of water and molecules are re-observed into the filtrate from the filtrate into the blood along the tubes in the loop of henle and basically what’s filtered out goes into the urine and basically

To further explain the loop of henle um it’s a key area where this water is balanced where the osmosis happens so basically the sodium and water are filtered in the beginning area the descending aspect of the loop of henle while the fl filtrate flows downward and then um the ascending aspect is will where the filtrate is flowing upward um and yeah basically

The loop of henle can prevent reabsorption of 20 percent of filtered sodium and 15 of filtered water which results in a significant amount of water that is excreted in the urine um okay so some of the more easy to understand aspects of fluorescent wide is that they the drug works within one hour if given orally to a patient so the onset of the effects of the

Drug will be seen within an hour if given orally if it’s administered via iv intravenously um the effects will be seen within five minutes however that’s a less common method however both of them are still very effective fluorescemide is because of that it’s really effective in acute pulmonary edema so someone that needs uh the fix to happen quickly and acute

Heart failure um and then the effects last about six hours and i read that it’s worth giving this drug for smi to people earlier in the day because it does cause them to urinate more frequently um you don’t want them urinating more frequently as it gets closer to bedtime and throughout the night um especially in older people who have more trouble um getting up

And down and just maneuvering um throughout the the night time when you’re supposed to be sleeping so it’s better to give them when that six hour time frame is during the day um let’s see what else do i want to say um the adverse effects of furosemide it obviously drops they’re known to drop potassium levels in the blood um so that could be a problem for

Some people it causes this disease called hypokalemia it can also cause hypotension which is low blood pressure because of the reduced circulation volume they can also have potentially an acute kidney injury it can also cause i can imagine dehydration because you’re passing so much urine let’s see there’s i read there’s a possibility for it causing

Diabetics or pre-diabetics to worsen their diabetic control so it’s a good to know if your patient’s diabetic if they’re going to be placed on this drug um something else to look out for is hypo hyperglycemia cemia and it can also exacerbate gout so gout is like an acute form of arthritis in a specific area usually the big toe um and then very strangely it’s

Also been caused or known this drug fluorescent mine has been known to cause um a form of tinnitus or auto toxicity which is interesting it’s just damage to the inner ear which can then cause the tinnitus and to move on um a few various contra indications and cautions um again the patients anybody who has hypo calamium or hyponatremia which is basically if

You’re already dehydrated um which is hypovolemic patients and who are on lithium it can increase the levels of lithium in the blood so um to be cautious of their dose of lithium that they’re taking and to monitor that um so yeah it’s especially you need to watch out for anybody who’s dealing with any of that um yeah uh so the amount that is absorbed is

About um 20 percent of the reabsorption of filtered sodium and 15 of the filtered water can increase the output of water in the urine i believe i already spoke about that um and then of the total clearance that’s leaving the body the kidneys are responsible um from this drug of 43 percent of fluorescements excretion um yes and then how this drug relates

To tcm is i classified it as a kind of drug that um would dispel damp and um i would see someone needing to harmonize the middle jaw in this kind of aspect as well so something else is in nutrition i would say something like this would need a pungent flavor or something that disperses or potentially even a salty something that drains downward um so kind

Of going over um some more tcm stuff in tcm the formula um that i chose which is actually um great for edema as well as wu pison which is the five peel powder and this action this formula’s actions and indications is to resolve damp dampness reduce edema regulate qi and strengthens the spleen and reduces swelling so a lot of that i felt like overlapped with

What for smi does um yeah this formula can also treat tree stagnation which i could see how if this process is going on in the body um first of mine seems like it’s also invigorating the chi so um yeah uh that is all i have for you today so thank you so much and i hope you have a beautiful rest of your day thank you you

Transcribed from video
Furosemide Pharmacology 2 By Angela Renzulli