February 1, 2023

Methamphetamine is a widely used stimulant in the amphetamine class. It was synthesized in 1893, but it didn’t become popular until around the 1930s. Since then, it has been used in both medical and recreational settings.

Methamphetamine is a stimulant in the amphetamine class it has a long history of use in many countries and has been extensively used since the 1930s methamphetamine is one of the most widely used stimulants and is one of the most popular controlled drugs among its positive effects are alertness stimulation euphoria mood lift disinhibition increased sociability increased

Motivation temporary cognitive enhancement and greater sexual desire pleasure and stamina the negative effects may include increased blood pressure increased temperature appetite reduction jaw clenching increased heart rate paranoia anxiety aggressiveness and insomnia methamphetamine has been prescribed for numerous conditions throughout history but some countries have

Stopped using the drug entirely and others have only approved it for a limited range of applications in the u.s it is still sometimes used for adhd and is occasionally prescribed for weight loss narcolepsy and excessive sleepiness the effects are very similar to those of amphetamine and the greatest difference appears with the route of administration oral amphetamine

Such as with adderall will have some notably different subjective effects compared to non-oral methamphetamine when the route is the same the differences are pretty small the stimulation it provides is quite apparent and at common or strong doses it may be characterized by both significant mental stimulation and difficulty remaining still methamphetamines effects

On sexual behavior are not unique but they are notable due to the drug’s popularity among certain populations it can reportedly provide a range of positive effects in this area including increased stamina and pleasure the drug’s ability to increase impulsiveness can contribute to unsafe sexual decisions however one of methamphetamines alleged effects is its ability

To cause dental problems however the direct effects of the drug on dental health have been greatly exaggerated as long as you maintain good dental hygiene there is little reason to believe regular use will cause problems orally the drug lasts for six to eight hours and begins working in 20 to 45 minutes it lasts for two to four hours when used intranasally inhaled

Or when taken intravenously the onset is five to ten minutes intranasally under five minutes with inhalation and under two minutes intravenously large doses will generally last longer and the stimulation may last longer than euphoria methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers s and r methamphetamine both are active but s methamphetamine is more active and provides

Subjective effects for a longer period or methamphetamine also known as levomethamphetamine is available without a prescription in some products both s methamphetamine and a racemic mixture of the two have been sold depending on which precursors are available at the time the main precursors are ephedrine pseudoephedrine and p2p also known as benzyl methyl ketone

Bmk and phenylacetone methamphetamine is more lipid soluble than amphetamine allowing it to more rapidly cross the blood-brain barrier this is one of the differences that contributes to more central versus peripheral action with each dose it operates in a few ways to increase the total effect of dopamine norepinephrine and serotonin in the body first it blocks

The reuptake and reverses the flow of their transporters and second it operates at vmat2 to send more of those neurotransmitters into the cytosol which eventually leave the cell well methamphetamine also functions as an agonist at sigma receptors which may play a role in its core effects and also contribute to neurotoxicity the drug provides a greater dopamine and

Serotonin response than amphetamine overall its activity affects norepinephrine more than dopamine and dopamine more than serotonin a normal medical dose of methamphetamine is 10 to 25 milligrams per day in two doses orally a light dose is 5 to 15 milligrams a common dose is 15 to 30 milligrams and a strong dose is 30 to 45 milligrams intronasally a light dose is 5

To 10 milligrams our common dose is 10 to 30 milligrams and our strong dose is over 30 milligrams when inhaled a light dose is 5 to 10 milligrams a common dose is 10 to 25 milligrams and a strong dose is 25 to 40 milligrams intravenously a light dose is 5 to 10 milligrams a common dose is 10 to 30 milligrams and a strong dose is over 30 milligrams methamphetamine

Was first synthesized from ephedrine by nagai nagayoshi in japan in 1893 crystallized methamphetamine hcl was later synthesized by akira agoda in 1919 also in japan during the 1930s and 1940s the drug was widely used globally for conditions like fatigue weight loss depression and narcolepsy along with amphetamine it was being used in north america europe and

Asia methamphetamine tablets with the name methodrin were introduced in 1940 and in 1941 it was introduced under the names philippon and cedrin in japan those drugs were available without a prescription to fight sleepiness and enhance vitality world war ii is when methamphetamine saw its first wide-scale use and abuse methamphetamine was taken by the japanese

And germans germany primarily used pervatin which was introduced by temler in 1938 and japan used philippon which was introduced by dynapon in 1941 the reason for methamphetamines use was largely the same regardless of location commanding officers mostly just wanted their troops to remain alert though the drug also helped with reducing appetite the drug’s history

In germany is fairly well documented in march 1938 temler introduced a methamphetamine product called pervitin which was available in three milligram tablets and 15 milligram ampoules when it was first introduced no prescription was required and it was inexpensive resulting in wide civilian use many workers used the drug as did people looking for its euphoric and

Pro-sexual effects temler promoted the drug in medical settings by sending it to physicians and encouraging them to publish positive findings over 100 studies in support of purvatin were published by the end of 1939 those studies which were almost universally low quality suggested it could be used for a huge set of conditions including migraine apathy sexual

Deficiency schizophrenia and even infant resuscitation because reports had a period of abuse health issues and addiction some german leaders became concerned f heifener a pharmacologist warned against its use and dr leonardo conte the reich’s health leader decided it should only be used with a prescription though this initially just led to illegitimate prescribing

By doctors conti was upset with the way doctors were acting and ordered they changed their prescribing in march 1940 the widespread use of methamphetamine by civilians would continue for over a year after this point in early 1941 media reports began attributing german successes to the drug a large black market for purvatin was discovered by berlin police in the

Spring of 1941. it was truly treated as a controlled drug by july 1941 though used could continue in the military looking at the military’s response to methamphetamine from the late 1930s until the end of the war we see that it was widely used while also being combated by german officials temler’s request to get perverton into the military was submitted in 1937

But it was not accepted until 1940 when it was approved it was not meant for anything other than major cases of exhaustion it was also decided that each use of methamphetamine should be followed by long restored of sleep from the beginning the army and other parts of the military used purvatin more than expected medical pacs began containing roles of 33 milligram

Tablets in april 1940 from april to december the medical depots dispensed an estimated 30 million tablets during that time reports of widespread use appeared and it was credited with saving many lives but some users also suffered dangerous health consequences including fatal heart attacks in response to further complaints from civilian and military officials the

Availability of methamphetamine was sometimes restricted however widespread use persisted through the rest of the war another application of the drug in german territory was by ss officials they both used the drug and tested it on inmates in the concentration camps it was used in hunger experiments and during 60-mile heavy backpack walks that the inmates were forced

To take on three hours of sleep the first major wave of methamphetamine use in the u.s and japan appeared between 1945 and 1950 driven part partly by stockpiles left over from the war multiple products were available between the 1950s and 1970 including the valo inhaler methadrine and obatrol a liquid methamphetamine product was also used to treat heroin addiction

The 1960s saw a second wave of use in the u.s and illicit production began in 1962 following the withdrawal of some methamphetamine products from the market anti-amphetamine activists began using the speed kill slogan in the 1960s due to the rise in recreational use the illicit methamphetamine trade was dominated by motorcycle gangs like the hell’s angels between

The 1960s and 1980s production eventually shifted to mexico methamphetamine was considered a major problem in the u.s and japan in the 1980s and 1990s there was a rise in high purity s methamphetamine in hawaii around this time and it was imported from the philippines japan and taiwan with p2p now controlled in the 1980s ephedrine and pseudoephedrine became more

Popular both were trafficked into the u.s from mexico you spread during the 1990s with australia thailand and other asian countries affected in a significant way as of the 2000s methamphetamine is a top illicit drug and use rates are notably high in the philippines australia and the us south africa iran north korea and some parts of europe have also seen an increase

Currently the purity varies significantly by location and batch it is usually much higher with crystallized versus powder methamphetamine with the total range being from 10 to over 80 percent pure along with the u.s there is a fairly high use rate in asia where it is the first or second most widely used illicit drug in many countries methamphetamine is found with

Some regularity in mdma tablets exposing more people to the drug it is the most widely seized of the amphetamines and methamphetamine labs are the most common kind of illicit drug lab in the u.s production primarily occurs in mexico the u.s china indonesia malaysia and thailand some production has also been recorded in the past decade in south africa iran and west

Africa methamphetamine is scheduled two in the us and is generally controlled in a very restrictive way elsewhere it is important to understand that the harms of methamphetamine are primarily seen when large amounts are used in a binge-like manner or the drug is taken consistently at very high doses not sleeping which is common with some use patterns exacerbates

The harms fatal overdoses are quite rare though they can occur those deaths are generally connected to extreme hyperthermia and cardiovascular problems without death very dangerous effects like hyperthermia severe tachycardia vasoconstriction convulsions and coma can still occur in addition to those physical problems there will usually be severe psychological

Disturbance when too much is used low to common doses aren’t associated with much beyond the level of anxiety and moderate heart rate increases once you enter high doses or redosing which can mean using hundreds of milligrams problems arise both acutely and chronically psychosis can be evoked with acute high doses during binges and with consistent high doses it

Presents much like paranoid schizophrenia and includes hallucinations and delusions the hallucinations are primarily auditory though they can be visual and tactile and the delusions are characterized by concerns about persecution mind reading and similar problematic beliefs the recovery from an acute psychotic state is usually quick though it can persist for days

And even weeks in some cases prolonged psychosis is primarily seen in those who’ve been taking very large amounts for a long period of time cardiovascular concerns also exist and can lead to dangerous and fatal outcomes the drug is cardiotoxic when large amounts are taken acutely or in the long term two controversial problems with methamphetamine are neurotoxicity

And lasting cognitive impairment neurotoxicity does seem to exist with dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons it seems to be heavily connected to reactive oxygen species excitotoxicity and hyperthermia compared to amphetamine it appears the risk is higher with methamphetamine dose for dose methamphetamine has been associated with impairments in executive function

Learning memory and other realm of cognitive function these results are somewhat controversial but it does appear at least some cognitive impairment can exist for weeks and sometimes months after very significant use withdrawal from methamphetamine includes disturbed sleep depression anxiety and cognitive impairment agitation reduced energy and vivid or unpleasant

Dreams are also commonly reported the depression and anxiety is greatest for two to three days and it declines over the next 10 days some of the risky combinations include other stimulants and tramadol if you have any questions about methamphetamine feel free to leave them in the comment section in order for the drug classroom to provide more education support is

Necessary and the best way to support is through patreon at patreon.com classroom you can also contribute through paypal or bitcoin you can connect with me on twitter at seth a fitzgerald and via email at seth thedrugclassroom.com more information and links to references can be found on the ttc website using the link below

Transcribed from video
Methamphetamine: What You Need To Know By The Drug Classroom