November 29, 2022

Methylphenidate is a CNS stimulant that cab used as tablets, SR tablets, capsules and as other forms for the treatment of ADHD.

Hi everyone in this video let us discuss about methyl infinity what is this drug methyl infinity this drug also known as mph is one of the cns stimulant just like other drugs such as amphetamine and being a cn stimulant this drug is indicated for the treatment of adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder similarly this struct can also be indicated for

Treatment of narcolepsy where a sudden bouts of sleep can be observed in the patients during the day time in such conditions methyl affinity can increase the arousal and wakefulness that’s what can reduce the narcolepsy within the patients but nowadays one of the main indication of methylphenidate is the treatment of adhd so what is this adhd this is one of

The hyper activity disorder which is observed mainly in the children as well as the adults in such patients we can observe some hyperactivity symptoms such as excitability and lack of focus lack of concentration resulting in some loss of memory increased irritability as well as agitation and the patients may have some indiciousness and commonly observed is

The disorganization where they cannot sit in a proper way they cannot manage the things in a proper way with some hyperactivity so all these symptoms are collected known as adhd which can be treated by methylphenidate even methylphenidate is a cns stimulant but still it can counteract this hyperactivity because adhd is mainly associated with mutations in genes

Coding for norepinephrine as well as dopamine transporters now methylphenidate can act on these transporters so that it can reduce the symptoms in adhd so today in this video we are going to see how this drug acts what is its chemical nature what are the important precautions side effects doses all these things we will discuss in this video first of all it is the

Chemical nature of this tract so this is the structure of methyl infinity and here we can simply observe the ester functionality so let us give the numbering this is one and this is two so simply it is a acetate derivative which is forming an ester with methyl group so simply it is a methyl state now at the second portion it is attached with the phenyl ring we can

Write this as two phenyl similarly at the second portion piperidin ring is attached by second portion so two dash piperine two oil that is a complete name of methylphenidate so simply methylphenidate is the methyl phenylate which is having a vibrating ring system at the second position now let’s see how this drug acts even the exact mechanism of mph is unknown

But it mainly acts by increasing the transmission of norepinephrine as well as dopamine within the cns norepinephrine acts as one of the important neurotransmitter so these are the presynaptic neurons on the post synaptic neurons adrenergic receptors such as alpha beta receptors are now when action potential reaches to the presynaptic neurons calcium can enter

To produce calcium mediated exocytosis which release the norepinephrine so that norepinephrine can act on alpha beta receptors so this produce post-synaptic excitation but the action of release norepinephrine is controlled by its reuptake by norepinephrine transporter now the norepinephrine can be taken back again into the navel terminal by this norepinephrine

Transporter in this way the effectiveness of norepinephrine is controlled by norepinephrine transporter similarly and the neurotransmitter within the cns is the dopamine so these are the pre-synaptic dopaminergic neurons and these are the post-synaptic neurons on which dopamine receptors such as d2 receptors are located now again by exocytosis dopamine can be

Released and it can act on post synaptic receptors resulting in post synaptic potential just like the norepinephrine dopamine can be taken back again into the negative terminal by dopamine transporters now the release dopamine can be taken into the negative terminal through this transporter which controls the dopant transmission within the cns now methylphenidate

Is a cns stimulant which can act on this norepinephrine transporter as well as dopamine transporter thereby inhibits the activity of these two transporters and when these optic transporters are inhibited it results in the increased levels of norepinephrine as well as dopamine within the synaptic cleft in this way methylphenide increase the neurotransmission of

Norepinephrine as well as top mind what are the precautions of methyl infinity one of the important precautions of methylphenidate is that this drug can activate not only the cns it can also stimulate cardiovascular system due to its stimulant effect on cardiovascular system methylphenidate can increase the rate of contraction so it can increase the risk of stroke

In the patients as well as myocardial infarction so whenever this drug is used any symptoms such as severe chest pain uncontrolled cinco or any cardiac arrhythmias are absurd then immediately caution should be taken as this drug may increase the risk of stroke and myocardial infarction within the patients similarly the patients who are having any cardiomyopathy

Or coronary artery disease or any cardiac abnormalities such as structural as well as functional abnormalities in such patients methylphenidate is contraindicated because it can further increase the complications resulting in sudden death within the patients so in those patients with any cardiac abnormalities methylphenidate is contraindicated similarly this drug

Can affect the blood vessels so that it can increase the blood pressure within the patients and similarly it can also act on the heart resulting in the increased rate of contraction leading to tachycardia as well as palpations within the patients similarly this drug can act on the cns where it increase the norepinephrine as well as dopaminergic transmission so

Because of elevated levels of dopamine within the cns it can produce some psychotic symptoms so because of this cnn stimulation methylphenidate can produce some hallucinations delusions even a phase of mania can be developed with this methyl affinity so if any patient is already having any psychotic symptoms then this drug should be carefully used similarly this

Drug can increase the risk of priapism where prolonged erection of penis can be observed in the men and it can also increase the peripheral vasculopathy resulting in vasoconstriction and symptoms of reynolds disease and within the children it may suppress the growth by long-term administration what are the side effects the important side effects of methylphenidate

Are mainly related with cardiovascular system so you can produce some palpitations tachycardia and you can also stimulate the cns resulting in anxiety headache insomnia gastrointestinal side effects such as abdominal pain dry mouth nausea loss of appetite resulting in some weight loss can be observed with this methylphenidate and it can also increase the

Disorientation the patients along with excess of sweating how it is given this drug is available in different doses form such as tablet sr tablet sustained release tablet which releases the drug very slowly it is also available as chewable sr tablets even capsules sr capsules solution patches in this way in different doses forms methylphenidate is available

And the dose of the drug is individualized based on the patient conditions so the dose may be variable from 20 to 30 mg given as either twice or thrice daily the maximum loss of the drug is 60 mg per day again given as divided doses but in the children the dose is somewhat less it is started at 5 mg given twice daily so that’s about the start methylphenidate

Which is a cns stimulant which is indicated for the treatment of adhd attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as this drug is also indicated for the treatment of narcolepsy this drug inhibits norepinephrine as well as dopamine transporters this may improve the symptoms within the adhd as well as it can also produce few of the symptoms such as increased

Stimulation of cardiac system resulting in tachycardia palpitations and risk of stroke and death in the patients it can also stimulate the cns resulting in hallucinations delusions and some manic phase all these symptoms should be closely monitored when this drug is prescribed for long term period so that’s about the start methylphenidate hope you have enjoyed

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Transcribed from video
Methylphenidate for ADHD || Mechanism, precautions, side effects & uses By egpat