June 4, 2023

Methylphenidate is a stimulant that’s widely used in the treatment of ADHD. It is also used for narcolepsy and has been looked at for many other conditions.

Methylphenidate is a stimulant that is widely used as a treatment for adhd and it’s one of the most commonly used psychoactive medicines in children it is also used for narcolepsy and has been investigated or used for various problems including hyperactivity fatigue and depression outside of medical settings it is widely taken because of its recreational and work

Enhancing effects methylphenidate spas ative effects include stimulation cognitive enhancement increased motivation increased alertness euphoria and mood lifts its negative effects can include insomnia gi discomfort headache nausea irritability anxiety paranoia hypertension and increased heart rate the drug reliably helps with adhd and narcolepsy it’s also been

Researched with positive results for a number of other conditions there appears to be cognitive enhancing effects in healthy people and there’s evidence for improvements in motivation and task enjoyment it can be used recreationally like amphetamines but it does tend to provide less euphoria unless overall stimulation an enhancement of the enjoyable effects is

Often noted with ivy and intranasal use the latter of which is quite common in non-medical settings orally it lasts for four to six hours and begins working in 30 to 60 minutes intranasally it lasts for two to five hours and begins working in five to 15 minutes methylphenidate is a substitute finesse amine in pi pyridine derivative for enantiomers of the drug

Exist meaning there are four slightly different configurations of the molecule over time the available formulation has come to include d and l 3 o methylphenidate of those d3o methylphenidate also known as dex methylphenidate is responsible for its activity the drug binds to dopamine and norepinephrine transporters blocking the reuptake of those neurotransmitters

This leads to greater extracellular concentrations of both with a bias towards dopamine as there’s no notable effect on the serotonin transporter it’s different from some recreational stimulants through these actions methylphenidate ends up affecting d1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors there’s also an effect on sigma 1 receptors that through a series of events

May result in the phosphorylation of nmda receptors this action may enhance activity at those receptors contributing to some of methylphenidate activity the drug was first synthesized in 1944 just a few years after stimulants began to be used to treat disruptive behavior and children human tests began in the 1950s and it was patented in 1954 sibugay marketed

The substance as ritalin in the 1950s and it was promoted for multiple conditions information for prescribers said it could help with narcolepsy behavioral problems chronic fatigue and depression one of the earliest common uses of the drug was in reversing the sedation caused by verb its reports of non-medical and dangerous use appeared in the 1960s in one of

The earliest cases an individual was taking over a hundred tablets each day at this time using very large amounts was connected to greater euphoria but also greater paranoia and hallucinations intravenous use was reported in the 1960s and 1970s with all of the methylphenidate being diverted from prescriptions over the years there have been quite a few reports of

Psychosis mainly temporary and even death from either its direct effects or accidents these reports are quite rare it’s used for adhd has become far more common since the 1990s which is connected to a rise in the medical recognition of adhd as it currently stands methylphenidate is a very common drug with millions of adults and children using it for adhd daily

It has also been looked at for other conditions like non adhd hyperactivity such as in autism the drug is widely diverted and used in recreational settings as well as in the workplace in colleges and in high schools aurélie a light dose is 20 to 40 milligrams a common dose is 40 to 60 milligrams and a strong dose is 60 to 80 milligrams or more intranasally a

Light dose is 5 to 15 milligrams a common dose is 15 to 40 milligrams in a strong dose is 40 to 60 milligrams or more adults with adhd usually receive 20 to 30 milligrams per day though the range is 10 to 60 milligrams per day methylphenidate is a schedule 2 drug in the us and is controlled in most countries therapeutic doses of the drug in medical settings are

Not associated with significant common negative effects the usual negative effects are minor such as trouble sleeping gi discomfort and headache occasionally there have been reports of severe effects like aggression and minor hallucinations with regular doses but these are very uncommon and there’s at least one report of a nearly fatal response and hallucinations

With only 10 milligrams this kind of response is incredibly rare common doses are usually safe for healthy people concerns arise with very high doses and certain combinations at about 60 milligrams is one the usual negative effects like anxiety and a greater cardiovascular response more reliably appear and overdose can include increased temperature increased heart

Rate hallucinations paranoia and paradoxical lethargy stimulant psychosis is also a concern with a queue and repeated high dose use there are very few unintentional deaths directly the result of methylphenidate use the lethal dose is believed to be a couple hundred milligrams for someone with no tolerance tolerance builds after a few days of use and is gone in a

Week or two withdrawal does exist and can include apathy depression paranoia and lethargy some of the risky combinations include other stimulants and mao is combining it with alcohol is not notably dangerous beyond excessive intoxication though that combination does produce a novel active metabolite called ethyl fen a date much like how alcohol and cocaine create

Coke ethylene if you have any questions about methylphenidate feel free to leave them in the comments section support on patreon is greatly appreciated so if you’d like to contribute you can head to patreon.com/scishow drug classroom you can also contribute through youtube paypal or bitcoin using the addresses and links in the description you can connect with me

On twitter i set a fitzgerald and via email at seth at the drug classroom comm more information and links to references can be found on the tdc website using the link below

Transcribed from video
Methylphenidate (Ritalin): What You Need To Know By The Drug Classroom