February 1, 2023

NCLEX Review: Metoprolol – Mechanism of Action, Side effects, Contraindications, Antidote, and Nursing considerations

Hi everyone this is ryan from our p&t ca and today we’re going to be talking about the drug metoprolol also known as the oppressor today we’ll be covering all of the topics you see below you can use the timestamps in the video description to jump ahead the top blog belongs to the beta blocker drug classification and is used as an antihypertensive medication

This means that metoprolol will block or inhibit the beta adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system also known as the fight-or-flight nervous system for a quick review of the beta adrenergic receptors beta 1 is responsible for increasing heart rate blood pressure and cardiac output while beta 2 is mainly responsible for bronchodilation at low doses

Metoprolol is a selective beta one blocker also known as a cardio selective blocker this means that metoprolol inhibits the binding of adrenergic neurotransmitters at the beta 1 receptor sites and if we block beta 1 this results in a decrease in heart rate blood pressure and cardiac output this is why metoprolol is used as an antihypertensive medication so

Metoprolol is mainly used for the management of hypertension high blood pressure but it is also used for the management of chronic heart failure angina and myocardial infarction metoprolol can also be used in certain cardiac arrhythmias including tachyarrhythmias tacky arrhythmias meaning abnormal heart rhythms with a heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute

Again metoprolol works as a treatment in these problems mainly due to its effects of decreasing heart rate and blood pressure metoprolol and other beta blockers have been shown to prevent migraines though the reason for this is not exactly understood to remember the side effects of metoprolol it’s important to remember how the drug works remember metoprolol

Inhibits the binding at beta one receptor sites thereby decreasing heart rate blood pressure and cardiac output metoprolol can therefore cause bradycardia or abnormally low heart rate or static hypotension dizziness and other problems like nausea weight gain and insomnia it is important to note that in higher doses metoprolol can actually block beta 2 receptors

Causing bronchoconstriction bronchoconstriction may present as wheezing and shortness of breath this is why metoprolol should be used with caution in anyone who has asthma copd or other respiratory dysfunctions due to that risk of bronchoconstriction in higher doses metoprolol is contraindicated with bradycardia hypotension cardiogenic shock acute heart failure

Acute pulmonary edema and more in the case of metoprolol overdose where symptomatic bradycardia and hypotension are present the most common antidote is glucagon glucagon may be administered alongside norepinephrine or epinephrine to help counteract the effects of the overdose always remember to assess and monitor for side effects of metoprolol watch for changes

In blood pressure like orthostatic hypotension and always ensure that the client’s blood pressure in heart rate are within normal limits before administering the drug it is very important to instruct clients not to abruptly stopped taking metoprolol due to the risk of rebound hypertension like other antihypertensives metoprolol must be tapered off even if the

Client’s blood pressure is improving if you have any questions about metoprolol you can let me know in the comments or you can visit our p&t ca for more information and practice quizzes

Transcribed from video
Metoprolol (Lopressor) Nursing Drug Card (Simplified) – Pharmacology By Nurse Ryan