March 28, 2023

Presentation of a research article by Mari S. Golub, Casey E. Hogrefe, and Alicia M. Bulleri on the effects of fluoxetine on peer social interaction.

Introducing this article social functioning is a major factor in the depression category ssri or the serotonin selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is the treatment that has been used in children to treat depression and also having anxiety fluoxetine is the reuptake inhibitor that improves social function and adult we are unsure if it will improve the social

Functioning in children but in normal adults ssris have been demonstrated to facilitate social interactions but fluoxetine has not yet been studied fluoxetine would be expected to facilitate social interactions in children based on past findings in adult in the study we measure social interactions in healthy young male rhesus monkeys as this can be tested on

Children with psychoactive drugs but the side effect would be an irreversible change and brain development which could lead to the impairment of the brain in addition to this study we also studied the drug genotype interactions as an inhibitor of the serotonin reuptake flux a teen has potential to interact with the serotonin metabolism pathway in the next slide you

Will discover the methods the discussion and the result in this study the animal selected for this study consisted of 32 mel rhesus monkey infants and they all came from the california national primate research center if you don’t know what a rhesus monkey looks like that is a picture of one to the right that is actually um in the research center and they chose

Mel’s of our females due to the ability to obtain the mao-a genotype group from the male’s more easily than from the females it’s more prevalent the subject pairing was pretty straightforward you have your control group that consisted of 16 monkeys that were broken down into two different categories those of which were the high and low maoa genes each category had

Eight monkeys in it and then there was the treatment group that were receiving fluoxetine also consisted of 16 monkeys broken down into high and low maoa genes eight for each group so as you can tell by the chart that i pulled from the paper on each group for example the high mao-a gene that monkey that was in the control section would be paired with another monkey

That was the same as them and then they would also be paired with a monkey that was different from them as in they had a low mao-a gene instead of a high in those interactions interactions were observed and the same was done with the treatment group hi paired with high and low paired with low high low also observed so these monkeys they were housed in a very large

Indoor caging room so basically this was a very large room with two very large cages as well in these two cages were connected by a door and that door was always open except for when the treatment group were receiving their doses and when they were doing some sort of behavioral testing but other than that the door remains open and each pair were allowed to interact

With one another as they pleased so anytime they wanted to groom one another they would just walk to the door to one side of the cage or to the other and that observation would be made of the interactions so the observation sessions were conducted in somewhat of a strict manner they wanted to be quite consistent so each session occurred in the afternoon at three

O’clock this session was observed by the same person that had previously observed it and that observer was always seated in a neutral position in the room with their laptop so now more than two groups were observed in an afternoon in the way they wanted about their observation process with the interactions that they saw between the monkeys was using an ether gram

And it had a list of 30 standard social interactions and expressive behaviors that they would tally up as they saw the monkeys interact with those behaviors and any other behaviors that they were observing that were not listed on the ether gram those were considered to be non social behaviors as previously stated the observers used a behavioral etho gram in order

To track all social interactions and expressive behaviors that they observed during the sessions between the pairs of monkeys so the social interaction category 0 is broken down into four different sections those consisted of passive contact quite interaction active play and immature sexual behavior all of which are exactly what they sound like for example quiet

Interaction is just that it was a quiet interaction they would groom one another without any vocalizations and communication between one another so then you also had the social expressive behaviors and those were broken down only into two sections those were facial interactions and vocalizations exactly what they sound like as well vocalizations for example we’re

Grunting or any noises specific calls they made anything of that sort of nature and these are just examples of some of the behaviors and interactions that they observed there was a long list of many other behaviors that were on that standard 30 that they tracked but these are just an example of several the average time spent in social interactions for the control

Group of monkeys was thirty-eight percent of the 90 minutes observed which increased by thirty percent and fluoxetine treated monkeys and this was only observed in quiet interactions in immature sexual behaviors and it was or had some influences by partner genotype variables such as high and low maoa combinations the time spent in passive contact was six percent

Of the 90-minute observed time and there were no fluoxetine or mao a genotype effect or interaction which you can see by the history of at the bottom both the vehicle when the fluoxetine treated monkey had about the same time of passive contact interaction the time spent quiet social interaction was only seventeen percent of the 90-minute observed time and increased

By 61 percent with the treatment of velocity grooming behaviors were greater in monkeys partnered with like genotypes and clinging did seem to be slightly greater in monkeys with different genotypes however this was not statistically significant the average time is spent in active play was twelve percent of the 90 minutes observed time and there were no significant

Changes from the vehicle to the flock stream treated monkeys which you can see at the bottom there’s not a whole lot of difference maybe a slight difference but not much not enough to be significant immature sexual behavior is a normal part of rhesus monkeys play and stress relief pattern and it was averaged at a 2.57 percent of the time observed in the vehicle

Monkeys and this increased by sixty percent in the fluoxetine treated monkeys in flocks insulin-treated monkeys the high mal a subgroup had an increased number of invitation behavior such as approach play basic grooming behaviors compared to the low mao a subgroup the fluoxetine and mao a genotype are not found to influence the number of behavior terminations

However the amount of expressive behavior was not influenced by fluoxetine but showed a trend toward effects of partner genotype and toward an interaction between ma o a genotype and partner genotype they observed two clusters and compared them a closer one included coo fear grimace scratch in cluster two included grunt threat lipsmack sniff and yawn and it was

Found that fluoxetine by partner genotype interaction occurred only in monkeys with low mao a genotype and reflected a much higher frequency of these expressive behaviors and fluoxetine treated monkeys these partners also had low mao a genotype lots of this experiment suggests that treatment with fluoxetine increased the amount of time spent in social interactions

Without disruption or increase in abnormal or aggressive behavior of the relevant background information in the discussion section suggests that affects the bes ssris the social interactions in normal individuals may apply to individuals on the autism spectrum as was demonstrated in this animal model evidence for the promotion of social bonding increased social

Interaction and depressed patients and treatment of social phobias are noted as evidence for this hypothesis previous research in two mouse models for autism was also suggestive of a role for ssris in treating social interaction problems the perceived interaction between the mao-a genotype and fluoxetine in promoting the observed behavior is compounded by age sex

Housing and observation conditions in the observed situation used here expressive behaviors could be directed at other animals in the room at the observer as well as at the proximal social partner and we’re not necessarily embedded in an interaction sequence these considerations limit interpretation furthermore if the multitude of confounding variables aren’t

Responsible for the effect observed increased social behavior could be interpreted as part of a more general activation of behavior activation of behavior and children by fox a teen and other ssris which was recognized early in this its therapeutic use in children and is seen as having predominantly negative implications any evidence that the pattern of change in

Specific behaviors may depend on genotype of the children may help personalize the use of psychoactive drugs to promote social interaction which could be very broadly applied across disorders including autism depression and social anxiety and children in conclusion this experiment was successful in demonstrating that fluoxetine may have promoted social behavior

With the familiar peer in rhesus monkeys with a susceptible genotype you

Transcribed from video
Rhesus Monkeys, Fluoxetine, and Peer Social Interaction By Codi Kindoll