February 7, 2023

In observance of Diabetes education month, and as a nurse and diabetes educator, each Monday for the month of November, I made my usual “shorts” video just a little bit longer, so I can share a little bit more information about the different types of medications that are used in the treatment of diabetes.

So you have been diagnosed with diabetes for a little while and you’ve been taking some medications that seem for the most part that they have not been working as expected maybe it’s the medication maybe it’s your diet or maybe you are not exercising but what if maybe you are doing all of that taking your medications eating a healthy diet and exercising quite

Frequently so when you visit your doctor you show them your blood glucose log with mostly elevated numbers and they do lab work or more specifically your a1c and it’s elevated maybe even increased so your doctor tells you i think i’m going to add another medication i’m going to add either glyphoside glimmer pyride or glyburide so you ask what are those and

Your doctor replies to you they are in a class of medication called sulfonylureas and you ask sofanna your whats hi there i’m nursemaster charlie i am a registered nurse and a certified diabetes educator or now known as a certified diabetes care and education specialist have you ever heard of the medication class called safano ureas if you have diabetes there

Is a strong possibility that you take this type of medication or know someone who does and like the story in the intro maybe it’s the medication that your doctor is considering prescribing for you and if you are a nurse you have probably seen this type of medication on a patient’s medication list that is what this video is about today sophomores all my family

Friends colleagues supporters and subscribers welcome back and a big thank you for your support to all of you who do not know me welcome to my youtube channel welcome to my nursing channel i’m glad you found my channel where i talk about and share about nursing nursing school related topics and tips as well as health-related topics tips and information today is

What i like to call medication monday and usually my medication monday videos are done as shorts which are usually 30 to 60 seconds long but in observations of diabetes education month and as a nurse and diabetes educator for the month of november i’m making my videos a little bit longer so i can share a little bit more information about the medications used in the

Treatment of diabetes so today’s medication topic is on that of safan ureas what they are what they’re used for what the benefits are how they work and what the side effects are and sophomores what kind of name is that what kind of word is that due to this long name and difficult long name you may see them abbreviated as s u for short sophany ureas sulfonylureas

By definition refers to hypoglycemic compounds related to sulfonamides that are used to treat diabetes so stefanorias what kind of medication is that it’s a type of medication that is used to treat high blood glucose in diabetes type two and one also has been known to be used to treat high blood glucose levels in gestational diabetes the most commonly prescribed

Safan areas are glomepyride also known as amarol glyphozyte also known as glucotrol which sounds like some type of transformer you know more than meets the eye and glyburide also known as diabetic glynase and micronese now these are all considered second generation safan urease but you may see others prescribed as glibinoclamide tolazamite and tobutamide which are

Considered first generation now as an fyi clementeride is sometimes considered a third generation type now i just mentioned the generation types just in case you hear of them being described as first second or third generations think of that as medications that have evolved or were made better let me know in the comments below if you or family member or friend take

Any of these medications and stick around to the end of this video because i’m going to share about where these medications are ranked in the comparison to other diabetes medications and why and for your nursing students or nurses watching this this is some of the information that you should know for your overall medication knowledge that way when you see these

Medications on your patients list of medications you will know a little bit more about them so before we get too deep into this video this video is for educational purposes only this is not an all-inclusive informative video about safanirias just some basic information if you have specific questions or concerns about this medication or any of your medications please

Talk to your healthcare provider and or your pharmacist so how are sophomores develops they were kind of discovered like many great inventions accidentally okay so let’s pictures 1942 and you’re chemists making or creating antibiotics and vaccines to help rid the world of infections related to germs like bacteria and viruses so speaking of bacteria and viruses see

My other videos about influenza diphtheria tetanus and pertussis to learn about how vaccines were created for those bacterias and viruses i’ll leave links at the end of this video so as a chemist you learned that these sulfonylureas are not only effective in killing certain bacteria but also in causing hypoglycemia or low blood sugar and you say to yourself what

What and that’s how cyphanius were discovered and developed to help in controlling blood glucose and people with type 2 diabetes so now that we know what they are and how they came to be how do they work let’s briefly review which organ in the body makes insulin is it the lungs the gallbladder is it the liver or is the pancreas if you said or guess the pancreas

You are absolutely correct sophomore years cause the pancreas or more specifically the beta cells within the pancreas to produce or secrete insulin sophomorias are also called insulin secretogs which literally means to promote secretion and in this case it would mean to promote the secretion of insulin so if you’re asking yourself how let me explain i’m going to

Get real technical and scientific for a moment as i describe how this occurs first sugar is used by ourselves to create energy a beta cell has many doors and one door specifically is to let glucose enter the cell this is similar in many cells this insulin cell specific door is called a glute ii or glucose transporter too sugar or glucose enters the cell through

This door after entering glucose is then converted into adp or adenosine diphosphate and atp or adenosine triphosphate these are basically energy as atp levels rise within the beta cells from conversion of the sugar to energy this causes closure of another type of door this door also called a channel not like a youtube channel or tv channel but a channel as in

A pathway between two pieces of land or in this case a pathway between inside the insulin cell and outside of the insulin cell this channel is called the atp sensitive potassium channel this channel or door allows potassium to enter and exit cells freely most of the time there is potassium inside the insulin cells which can usually leave the cell when it needs

To or bring more in when needed also when atp is created from the sugar this causes this door or atp sensitive channel to close when potassium levels decrease it then causes something called depolarization within the cell to occur which in turn opens another door or channel this is the calcium channel or calcium door still following me it is this calcium influx

That then causes the stimulation and release of insulin from what are known as insulin vesicles they’re also known as secretory granules or granules that secrete or produce insulin which is then released into the circulation or the bloodstream now real quick think of insulin as a key and an insulin receptor on a muscle has a door the insulin then finds the insulin

Receptor on the muscle cells or body cells resulting in the cell doors being open that allows blood glucose to lead circulation and enter the muscle cells where it is converted into energy this at the same time removes sugar from the bloodstream thus lowering blood glucose levels all that to tell you this sulfonylureas work by mimicking or copying this process

They force the closure of the atp sensitive potassium channels as potassium levels decrease it then causes the calcium doris to open letting calcium in which then causes the insulin vesicles to produce insulin which is then released into the circulation allowing for blood glucose to enter the cells again lowering circulating blood glucose levels in addition to all

That one benefit of safanoreas for those who have type 2 diabetes is that it can lower a person’s hemoglobin a1c also known as an a1c by approximately 2 percent the overall goal of anti-diabetic medications is to help control blood glucose levels and lower the a1c now two percent may not seem like a lot but do you know that by lowering an a1c by only one percent

It can decrease a risk of having a heart attack by 14 and decrease the risk of having an amputation by 43 so heart attack prevention and amputation prevention those are two good reasons to use these medications if you are unfamiliar with what an a1c is or how it works after you’re done watching this video please watch my video titled what is a hemoglobin a1c i’ll

Put a link in the card here sofonorias can also increase the sensitivity of beta cells to glucose which makes them work better by allowing more glucose to enter the beta cells which in turn makes more insulin production they can also reduce hepatic glucose production or sugar release from the liver which is a contributing factor to elevated blood glucose levels

Another good thing is that these medications are relatively cheap and inexpensive okay so if these medications are so great i just described all the pros why isn’t everybody taking them and what are the side effects and what are the cons of these medications these medications have quite a bit of side effects one of the most common and most serious side effects is

Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include headache sweating shaking dizziness blurry vision fatigue and also heart palpitations and some irritability because if you think about it if sulfonylureas make the pancreas make more insulin low blood sugar could result especially if used in combination with other diabetes medications

Another unwanted side effect is weight gain which is contradictory to the goal of diabetes in general which is to help decrease weight which helps lower insulin resistance which is another component of diabetes sophomorias can also react with many other medications other side effects include hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria hives itching and upset

Stomach caution should be taken if given to those with sulfa or sulfonamide allergies safanovs have been and continue to be using gestational diabetes although considered safe they are known to cause neonatal hypoglycemia as they can cross the placental barrier leading to low blood sugar as these babies utilize more sugar it can lead to lga or large gestational

Aged babies which can lead to birth trauma injury or c-sections for the mama normally the pancreas produces insulin when we need it generally when we eat or when blood glucose levels are elevated but these medications force the pancreas to make insulin continually which is one of the reasons for the high risk of hypoglycemia these medications stimulate beta cells

Within the pancreas to make and secrete more insulin but one issue is that it also makes the pancreas work harder over time and over time the pancreas can kind of like wear out this in turn can make safani areas to lose their effectiveness in making the pancreas produce insulin ideally after lifestyle changes then medication therapy would begin as for the ranking of

These sulfonylureas in diabetes treatment it begins with lifestyle changes as in diet and exercise the first line of defense medication-wise is metformin and if you haven’t watched my video on metformin i’ll leave a link in the card here there are reasons that glipozide limit pyrite and glyburide are used but according to the american diabetes association algorithm

Which is a list or pathway of which medications should be used first it kind of looks like this and due to the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain and all the other reasons i listed in the cons sophonorias are listed as last in the treatment of diabetes type 2. now these medications have been around for a very long time and they are used every day by many people

With diabetes they are very effective they are also very inexpensive it’s just that they are not listed at the top for diabetes treatment here you see them on the algorithm listed last or ranked last primarily due to the hypoglycemia or the risk of low blood sugar one more reminder remember if you have specific questions or concerns about this medication or any of

Your medications talk with your healthcare provider or your pharmacist okay so if you found value in this video and learned a little something please be sure to give this video a like as it helps out my channel also now that you know about these medications what they are what they do don’t forget to share this video with anybody who may benefit from this information

About sulfonate areas those you know who are taking it or maybe considering taking it those wanting to learn about it those of you who are in nursing school or are pre-nursing school remember this series of medication monday videos are going to be about specific medications used to treat diabetes if you’re interested in health information and nursing related content

Like this i’d like to invite you to subscribe and be part of my nursing channel and also hit the notification bell so you can be made aware of when i release new videos please be sure to check out my many other nursing topic related videos my nursing related music lyric videos here on youtube and my youtube shorts in which i created germs day thursday and release

New videos on most thursdays about different types of germs and medication mondays in which i highlight and share general information about certain medications and release new videos on most mondays and sweet saturdays in which i share and compare the amount of sugars in certain food products and release new videos on most saturdays be sure to check those out to

Learn some quick tidbits of bonus information i also write and create original nursing and health related educational music be sure to listen to my music on all music streaming platforms spotify itunes apple music pandora etc and watch my lyric videos here on youtube of my diabetes related songs what is diabetes check yo feet the a1c song which are songs pertaining

To diabetes also be sure to check out my nursing blog on my website www.nursemastercharlie.com i post new nursing and health blog articles weekly related to what i share here on youtube instagram tick tock and twitter i’ll also leave a link in the description so thank you for watching be sure to like comment subscribe and share be sure to find me here every monday

To every other monday for a medication monday video so until the next video god bless and goodbye that’s right

Transcribed from video
SULFONYLUREAS | Glipizide, Glimepiride, Glyburide | Diabetes Type 2 By NurseMasterCharlie RN