February 1, 2023

This video discusses the clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in cats.

In this video we are going to discuss the causes clinical signs diagnostics treatment and prognosis of diabetes mellitus and cats feline diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas gland does not produce enough insulin insulin is the hormone that allows many tissues of the body to utilize glucose as insulin levels fail becomes elevated producing many adverse

Side effects in the body the most common cause of diabetes mellitus in cats is the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas beta cells are responsible for insulin production this destruction of beta cells often arises from chronic inflammation of the pancreas this type of diabetes is known as type 1 diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes which arises either from

The development of resistance to insulin or from a decreased action of insulin within the body is uncommon in cats diabetes mellitus affects many different breeds and types of cats the disease is most often seen in neutered male cats 10 years of age or older the common clinical signs include increased thirst and urination increased appetite and weight loss

Because glucose cannot be utilized by the body it is almost as if the cat is starving in the midst of plenty some cats are also lethargic and weak and may walk with the hox of their hind legs dropped to the floor this specific clinical sign is known as the plantigrade stamps diabetes mellitus is diagnosed when the fasting levels of blood glucose concentration

Is significantly elevated cants that are stressed have the ability to temporarily raise their blood glucose to levels about normal so repeated blood glucose test and the testing of urination for the presence of glucose may be needed to confirm the disease additional tests are often indicated to look for other diseases such as urinary tract infection or fatty

Infiltration of the liver that may accompany diabetes mellitus such tests include a complete blood count biochemical profile urinalysis urine culture and abdominal radiographs because older cats are also prone to hyperthyroidism a thyroid test may also be submitted serum fructosamine levels can provide us with an average of blood glucose concentration during the

Period of seven to fourteen days before the blood sample was taken but this test is more used in monitoring response to insulin than is a diagnostic test cats with type 2 diabetes or very mild type 1 diabetes mellitus may respond to glipizide an oral medication that lowers blood glucose most cats however require injections of insulin to control their disease

Several forms of insulin are available and each has different duration of action protamine zinc insulin which is also known as pzi can be given once or twice daily this product is most available via compounding pharmacies large eeen also known as lantis is sustained release insulin which can be used in a once or twice daily schedule the best success rate of

Treatment seems to be obtained with a twice daily protocol porcine insulin zinc suspension also known in the united states as vet suelen is given to cats in 12-hour intervals other insulin products routinely used by veterinarians are nph insulin cumulant are and dedham err some investigations have shown beneficial effects in normal and diabetic cats supplemented

With chromium and vanadium but the role of these compounds in the management of feline diabetes mellitus remains to be determined in normal non obese cats chromium supplementation improves fasting glucose and glucose tolerance but does not alter insulin concentrations however in other studies chromium supplementation has no effects on glucose tolerance tests in

Obese and non-obese cats vanadium is thought to decrease insulin resistance and enhance glucose utilization via direct actions to enhance the activity of insulin signaling pathways although the exact mechanism of action is not known vanadium supplementation is generally well tolerated by cats and beneficial effects on glycemic control have been reported although

An eventual role may be found for these compounds the current knowledge does not allow for a general recommendation for their use in diabetic cats to be made in addition to insulin the diet may be changed to a low-fat high-fiber type of diet that contains complex carbohydrates several of these diets are available by prescription although it is difficult to train

Cats to eat meals it is best if they eat around the time the insulin injection is given diabetic cats can be difficult to monitor at home because the collection of their urine can be tricky they often eat throughout the day and they become a stressed and may not eat when hospitalized most monitoring is done by checking the level of glucose in small blood samples

Samples may be taken by your veterinarian at specific times during the day or throughout the day over a period of time monitoring they also be done at home in some instances if the owner is able to take blood samples from the cat and use a glucose meter designed for use in diabetic people thanks to advances in technology we can also use continued blood glucose

Monitoring devices as per example in the libra system it is important for the veterinarian and the cat owner to work closely in establishing the best method of monitoring blood and urine glucose while the cat is in insulin therapy the prognosis for many cats with diabetes mellitus is good as long as the disease can be regulated with medications and diets and other

Ancillary problems can be controlled or resolved successful treatment of this disease requires that the owner learns to give insulin injections become familiar with the signs of insulin overdose and under dose and learn how to adjust insulin doses with the dedication on the part of the owner many diabetic cats live active normal lives for many years if you like

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Transcribed from video
Veterinarian Explains: Diabetes Mellitus In Cats By Veterinary Channel